Latest status of the 2019-2020 nCoV – novel coronavirus

As with most, if not all medical conditions, early detection and treatment is important.

China released the information to the worlds medical community quite early allowing for quick mobilisation of resources, awareness and prevention.

Ground Zero

Initial source was from Huanan Seafood Market where initial patients were workers at the seafood market. The seafood market also housed live stock (animals)

Most at risk are:

  • Males.
  • Aged 55 +
  • People with low immune systems
  • People with pre existing conditions .
  • Smokers – due to increased respiratory problems

Early symptoms – characteristics:

Most patients have mild symptoms and good prognosis.

On admission, most patients had

  • fever or cough and
  • A third of patients had shortness of breath

Other symptoms included:

  • muscle ache,
  • headache,
  • confusion,
  • chest pain,
  • diarrhoea

Descriptive study of ground zero.

The Lancet. Is peer reviewed giving greater expert analysis.
Published:January 30, 2020


Characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study of ground zero.

This is a descriptive study on the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the 2019-nCoV, including data on 99 patients who were transferred to Jinyintan Hospital from other hospitals across Wuhan. It presents the latest status of the 2019-nCoV infection in China and adds details on combined bacterial and fungal infections.

Below inset is an excerpt from The Lancet. It is an official medical review, but is summarised for easier reading by those not in the medical profession. It also cites the contributors.


🏨

The Lancet – 2019-nCoV infection


“The reduced susceptibility of females to viral infections could be attributed to the protection from X chromosome and sex hormones, which play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity.

Additionally, about half of patients infected by 2019-nCoV had chronic underlying diseases, mainly cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes

For severe mixed infections, in addition to the virulence factors of pathogens, the host’s immune status is also one of the important factors.

▪️Old age,
▪️obesity, and
▪️presence of comorbidity ( presence of one or more additional conditions co-occurring with a primary condition)
might be associated with increased mortality.

When populations with low immune function, such as:
▪️older people,
▪️diabetics,
▪️people with HIV infection,
▪️people with long-term use of immunosuppressive agents, and
▪️pregnant women,
are infected with 2019-nCoV, prompt administration of antibiotics to prevent infection and strengthening of immune support treatment might reduce complications and mortality.

Some patients progressed rapidly with ARDS and septic shock, which was eventually followed by multiple organ failure.
Therefore, early identification and timely treatment of critical cases is of crucial importance.”

Read more at The Lancet

🏨




Genomic ( DNA) structure of BetaCoV 2019-2020


▪️Complete set of DNA
▪️Who, When, and Where
▪️Analysis of the distribution, patterns and determinants.

A global collaboration.

This was a global collaboration with the initial results being released early by China to Thailand, USA, France and Australia.

The complete genomic structure allows scientists to replicate the virus and subsequently, work on a possible vaccine to one or more of the mutated viruses.

The genomic sequence of nCov has been shared by Chinese researchers on various sequence databases to the global medical community.
All samples had a common ancestor with up to 7 mutations. The initial human infection was in Nov-Dec with subsequent human to human transmission.

Below inset is an excerpt from GISAID. Clearly listing the global collaborators in identifying the genomic structure of novel coronavirus .

🔬🧬


GISAID

“The nCoV genomes were generously shared by scientists at the
Country : China
▪️Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center & School of Public Health,
▪️Fudan University, Shanghai, China,
▪️National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Beijing, China,
▪️Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China,
▪️Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China,
▪️Department of Microbiology, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China,
▪️Guangdong Provincial Center for Diseases Control and Prevention at the Department of Medical Sciences, at the Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, Shenzhen, China,

Country: Thailand
▪️National Institute of Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand,

Country: USA
▪️US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA,

Country: France
▪️ Institut Pasteur, Paris, France,

Country :Australia
▪️University of Melbourne, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia,
▪️Victorian Infectious Disease Reference Laboratory, Melbourne, Australia”
Read more on the genome via GISAID

🔬💉



China and other countries moved quickly and selflessly to share and collaborate amongst the best in their fields to achieve a full genome structure along with alerting the general public and taking the necessary precautionary and preventative measures.

by Heidi M

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